VARNA


VARNA
VARNA, major seaport on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria; ancient Odessus; called Stalin 1949–1956). During the 1880s there were 300 Jews in Varna. The organization of the community was made possible by the Tedeschi brothers. In 1919 there were 1,500 Jews; in 1938, 2,000; and in 1943, 1,254. Besides the Sephardi community, there was also a small Ashkenazi community. The Alliance Israélite Universelle opened an elementary school for boys and girls in the town in 1880 and two vocational centers, one for boys in 1885 and one for girls in 1898. A newspaper in Ladino, Il Judio, which had at first been published in Constantinople, was published in Varna from 1922 to 1927 under the editorship of David Elnecavé. In 2004 there were 217 Jews in Varna, affiliated with the local branch of the nationwide Shalom organization. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. Mézan, Les Juifs espagnols en Bulgarie, 1 (1925), passim; M.D. Gaon, Ha-Ittonut be-Ladino (1965), passim. (Simon Marcus / Emil Kalo (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • VARNA — Grand port sur la mer Noire, centre universitaire et troisième ville de Bulgarie, Varna (320 600 hab. en 1991) est devenue un des plus grands centres industriels du pays. Aux industries alimentaires et textiles, aux usines de montage de machines… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Varna — puede referirse a: Lugares Varna, ciudad del este de Bulgaria, situada a orillas del mar Negro. Varna, una de las provincias de Bulgaria. Varna (en alemán Vahrn), municipio italiano perteneciente a la Provincia Autónoma de Bolzano. Hinduismo… …   Wikipedia Español

  • varna —    Varna (color) is the Vedic word for social class, in the class scheme found in Rig Veda X. 90. There the divine being is said to have offered himself in sacrifice to create reality. It is said that his mouth became the BRAHMIN, or priestly… …   Encyclopedia of Hinduism

  • Varna — (Sanskrit, f., वर्ण, varṇa, wörtl. „Farbe“, Kaste) ist der wichtigste Begriff für Kaste im indischen Kastensystem. Die ursprüngliche Bedeutung von Varna, nämlich Farbe, hat sich indirekt erhalten, indem jede der vier Hauptkasten mit einer Farbe… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Varna — Varna, IL U.S. village in Illinois Population (2000): 436 Housing Units (2000): 190 Land area (2000): 0.292962 sq. miles (0.758768 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.292962 sq. miles (0.758768 sq …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Varna, IL — U.S. village in Illinois Population (2000): 436 Housing Units (2000): 190 Land area (2000): 0.292962 sq. miles (0.758768 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.292962 sq. miles (0.758768 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • varna — [vur′nə] n. [Hindi varṇa, color < Sans, orig. prob. covering < IE base * wer , to close, cover > WEIR] CASTE (sense 1) …   English World dictionary

  • Varna — Varna, Stadt u. Hauptort des gleichnamigen Liwa im türkischen Ejalet Silistria, am Schwarzen Meere u. am Dawno, welcher hier in die Bai von V. mündet; V. ist stark befestigt u. hat eine Citadelle; es hat eine wenig gesicherte Rhede, Quarantäne,… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Varna — Varna, Stadt, s. Warna …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Varna — (Warna), das alte Odessos, Hafenstadt und Hauptort des bulgar. Kr. V. (9031 qkm, 1901: 286.184 E.), am Schwarzen Meer, 34.922 E., neuer Hafen; bis 1878 türk. Festung …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon